Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis in insulin insensitivity of mammalian cells

Chih Hao Wang, Ting Fen Tsai, Yau Huei Wei*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and their defects may be etiological factors contributing to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent studies indicate that alterations of Ca2+ levels and Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways can impede the insulin signaling cascade, resulting in insulin resistance of β cells and insulin-responsive cells. Mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) are essential for efficient communication between the ER and mitochondria. Thus, abnormalities in the structure and function of MAMs in affected tissue cells in T2D are an important area of study. Recently, we demonstrated that a deficiency of Cisd2, an iron–sulfur protein localized on MAMs, could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and disturbance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Moreover, we first elucidated that defects in the function of MAMs in Ca2+ uptake resulted in insulin insensitivity of adipocytes, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes in Cisd2 knockout mice. On the basis of these observations, we suggest improving the bioenergetic function of mitochondria and the function of MAMs in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis as a novel strategy for the development of new therapeutics aimed at preventing and treating insulin resistance and T2D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-76
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume1350
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Ca homeostasis
  • insulin insensitivity
  • mitochondria-associated ER membranes
  • mitochondrial dysfunction
  • type 2 diabetes

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