Rh(III)-Catalyzed Switchable [4 + 1] and [4 + 2] Annulation of N-Aryl Pyrazolones with Maleimides: An Access to Spiro Pyrazolo[1,2-a]indazole-pyrrolidine and Fused Pyrazolopyrrolo Cinnolines

Chih Yu Lin, Wan Wen Huang, Ying Ti Huang, Sandip Dhole, Indrajeet J. Barve, Chung Ming Sun*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

A rhodium(III)-catalyzed controllable [4 + 1] and [4 + 2] annulation of N-aryl pyrazolones with maleimides as C1 and C2 synthon has been explored for the synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[1,2-a]indazole-pyrrolidines] and fused pyrazolopyrrolo cinnolines. The product selectivity was achieved through time-dependent annulation. The [4 + 1] annulation reaction involves sequential Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H alkenylation of N-aryl pyrazolone, followed by an intramolecular spirocyclization via aza-Michael-type addition to afford spiro[pyrazolo[1,2-a]indazole-pyrrolidine]. However, prolonged reaction time converts in situ formed spiro[pyrazolo[1,2-a]indazole-pyrrolidine] into fused pyrazolopyrrolocinnoline. This unique product formation switch proceeds via strain-driven ring expansion through a 1,2-shift of the C-C bond.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3424-3435
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume88
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 17 Mar 2023

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