Reversible Charge Transfer Doping in Atomically Thin In2O3 by Viologens

Sung Tsun Wang, Yu Liang Lin, Lin Ruei Lee, Yu Cheng Chang, Robert Tseng, Tzu Ting Weng, Yan Yi He, Yi Yu Pan, Tsung Te Chou, Jiun-Tai Chen*, Der Hsien Lien*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Atomically thin oxide semiconductors are emerging as potential materials for their potentiality in monolithic 3D integration and sensor applications. In this study, a charge transfer method employing viologen, an organic compound with exceptional reduction potential among n-type organics, is presented to modulate the carrier concentration in atomically thin In2O3 without the need of annealing. This study highlights the critical role of channel thickness on doping efficiency, revealing that viologen charge transfer doping is increasingly pronounced in thinner channels owing to their increased surface-to-volume ratio. Upon viologen doping, an electron sheet density of 6.8 × 1012 cm-2 is achieved in 2 nm In2O3 back gate device while preserving carrier mobility. Moreover, by the modification of the functional groups, viologens can be conveniently removed with acetone and an ultrasonic cleaner, making the viologen treatment a reversible process. Based on this doping scheme, we demonstrate an n-type metal oxide semiconductor inverter with viologen-doped In2O3, exhibiting a voltage gain of 26 at VD = 5 V. This complementary pairing of viologen and In2O3 offers ease of control over the carrier concentration, making it suitable for the next-generation electronic applications.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • atomically thin semiconductors
  • charge transfer doping
  • InO
  • threshold voltage
  • viologen


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