Residential greenness and air pollution's association with nasal microbiota among asthmatic children

Aji Kusumaning Asri, Tsunglin Liu, Hui Ju Tsai, Hsiao Yun Lee, Wen Chi Pan, Chih Da Wu*, Jiu Yao Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Both greenness and air pollution have widely been linked with asthma. However, the potential mechanism has rarely been investigated. This study aimed to identify the association between residential greenness and air pollution (fine particulate matter [PM2.5]; nitrogen dioxide [NO2]; ozone [O3]) with nasal microbiota among asthmatic children during the recovery phase. The normalized difference vegetation index was used to assess the extent of residential greenness. Spatiotemporal air pollution variation was estimated using an integrated hybrid kriging-LUR with the XG-Boost algorithm. These exposures were measured in 250-m intervals for four incremental buffer ranges. Nasal microbiota was collected from 47 children during the recovery phase. A generalized additive model controlled for various covariates was applied to evaluate the exposure-outcome association. The lag-time effect of greenness and air pollution related to the nasal microbiota also was examined. A significant negative association was observed between short-term exposure to air pollution and nasal bacterial diversity, as a one-unit increment in PM2.5 or O3 significantly decreased the observed species (PM2.5: −0.59, 95%CI -1.13, −0.05 and O3: −0.93, 95%CI -1.54, −0.32) and species richness (PM2.5: −0.64, 95%CI -1.25, −0.02 and O3: −0.68, 95%CI -1.43, −0.07). Considering the lag-time effect, we found a significant positive association between greenness and both the observed species and species richness. In addition, we identified a significant negative association for all pollutants with the observed species richness. These findings add to the evidence base of the links between nasal microbiota and air pollution and greenness. This study establishes a foundation for future studies of how environmental exposure plays a role in nasal microbiota, which in turn may affect the development of asthma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115095
JournalEnvironmental Research
StatePublished - 15 Feb 2023


  • Air pollution
  • Asthmatic children
  • Nasal microbiota
  • Recovery phase
  • Residential greenness


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