Real-time physics-based 3D biped character animation using an inverted pendulum model

Yao Yang Tsai*, Wen-Chieh Lin, Kuangyou B. Cheng, Jehee Lee, Tong Yee Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


We present a physics-based approach to generate 3D biped character animation that can react to dynamical environments in real time. Our approach utilizes an inverted pendulum model to online adjust the desired motion trajectory from the input motion capture data. This online adjustment produces a physically plausible motion trajectory adapted to dynamic environments, which is then used as the desired motion for the motion controllers to track in dynamics simulation. Rather than using Proportional-Derivative controllers whose parameters usually cannot be easily set, our motion tracking adopts a velocity-driven method which computes joint torques based on the desired joint angular velocities. Physically correct full-body motion of the 3D character is computed in dynamics simulation using the computed torques and dynamical model of the character. Our experiments demonstrate that tracking motion capture data with real-time response animation can be achieved easily. In addition, physically plausible motion style editing, automatic motion transition, and motion adaptation to different limb sizes can also be generated without difficulty.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5161260
Pages (from-to)325-337
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2010


  • 3D human motion
  • Biped walk and balance
  • Motion capture data.
  • Physics-based simulation


Dive into the research topics of 'Real-time physics-based 3D biped character animation using an inverted pendulum model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this