Prolonged headache with vaccine- and dose-specific headache pattern associated with vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with migraine

Ai Seon Kuan, Shih Pin Chen, Yen Feng Wang, Shuu Jiun Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To examine SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-related headache characteristics and risk factors in migraine patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 732 migraine patients who had AstraZeneca Vaxzevria, Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty, or Moderna Spikevax vaccines. Participants provided information through questionnaires and headache diaries. Headache frequency before and after vaccination and factors associated with headache risk were examined. Results: Approximately a third of patients reported increased headache the day after having primary and booster doses, with mean increase ± SD of 1.9 ± 1.2 and 1.8 ± 1.1 days/week, respectively. Proportions of migraine patients with headache (after vaccination vs. before vaccination) increased after having primary-dose Vaxzevria (35.3% vs. 22.8%, p < 0.001) but not Spikevax (23.8% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.700) or Comirnaty (33.2% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.058). Headache proportion increased after having all three boosters (Vaxzevria 27.1% vs. 17.9% p = 0.003; Comirnaty 34.1% vs. 24.5% p = 0.009; Spikevax 35.2% vs. 24.8% p = 0.031). For primary dose with Vaxzevria and Comirnaty, headache risk increased on the vaccination day, peaked on the day after vaccination, and subsided within a week, while for Spikevax headache risk rose gradually after vaccination, peaked on the seventh post-vaccination day and subsided subsequently. For booster dose, headache risk generally increased on the vaccination day, peaked on the day after vaccination, and subsided gradually with fluctuating pattern within a month. Our study also showed that headache increased on the day before primary dose but not booster dose vaccination and it may be attributable to stress associated with having to undertake new vaccines. Multivariable analyses showed that depression was associated with headache. Conclusion: Prolonged headache with vaccine- and dose-specific headache pattern was found. Patients with higher risks of vaccine-related headache must be informed of the potential worsening headache.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCephalalgia
Volume43
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • adverse event
  • AstraZeneca Vaxzevria
  • COVID-19
  • Moderna Spikevax
  • Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty

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