Process-variation effect, metal-gate work-function fluctuation, and random-dopant fluctuation in emerging CMOS technologies

Yiming Li*, Chih Hong Hwang, Tien Yeh Li, Ming Hung Han

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


This paper, for the first time, estimates the influences of the intrinsic-parameter fluctuations consisting of metal-gate work-function fluctuation (WKF), process-variation effect (PVE), and random-dopant fluctuation (RDF) on 16-nm-gate planar metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and circuits. The WKF and RDF dominate the threshold-voltage fluctuation (σ Vth); however, the WKF brings less impact on the gate capacitance and the cutoff frequency due to the screening effect of the inversion layer. The fluctuation of timing characteristics depends on the σ Vth and is therefore proportional to the trend of σ Vth. The power fluctuation consisting of the dynamic, short-circuit, and static powers is further investigated. The total power fluctuation for the planar MOSFET circuits is 15.2%, which is substantial in the reliability of circuits and systems. The static power is a minor part of the total power; however, its fluctuation is significant because of the serious fluctuation of the leakage current. For an amplifier circuit, the high-frequency characteristics, the circuit gain, the 3-dB bandwidth, the unity-gain bandwidth power, and the power-added efficiency are explored consequently. Similar to the trend of the cutoff frequency, the PVE and RDF dominate both the device and circuit characteristic fluctuations due to the significant gate-capacitance fluctuations, and the WKF is less important at this simulation scenario. The extensive study assesses the fluctuations on circuit performance and reliability, which can, in turn, be used to optimize nanoscale MOSFETs and circuits.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5361404
Pages (from-to)437-447
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2010


  • Circuit
  • Coupled device-circuit simulation
  • Emerging device technology
  • Intrinsic-parameter fluctuation
  • Modeling and simulation
  • Nanoscale MOSFET
  • Power fluctuation


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