Practical considerations in applying Σ-Δ modulation-based analog BIST to sampled-data systems

Hao-Chiao Hong*, Jiun Lang Huang, Kwang Ting Tim Cheng, Cheng Wen Wu, Ding Ming Kwai

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    29 Scopus citations


    The analog built-in self-test (BIST) scheme, with stimulus generation and response extraction based on the Σ-Δ modulation, is proven to be quite effective for sampled-data systems. We show that the Σ-Δ modulators can be selected optimally for certain applications and functional tests. The criteria for valid tests are also derived. In particular, a valid frequency response test is determined by the frequency response observation range FRORBIST(z) of the BIST circuit. Given the transfer function HCUT(z) of the circuit under test, the requirement becomes FRORBIST(z) ≫ |1/HCUT(z)|. Using the MOSIS 0.35-μm CMOS process, we have implemented a test chip containing a Fleischer-Laker biquadratic low-pass filter as the circuit under test. An on-chip one-bit digital-to-analog converter provides the analog stimulus from a bit stream which is applied externally. For each test item, different bit streams, synthesized by first-, second-, and fourth-order Σ-Δ modulators that are programmed by software, are compared for performance. First- and second-order Σ-Δ modulators are implemented on the test chip as the candidates for the analog response extractor. The measurement results by single-tone tests and multitone tests validate the feasibility of the BIST scheme.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)553-566
    Number of pages14
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing
    Issue number9
    StatePublished - 1 Sep 2003


    • Analog response extractor
    • Analog stimulus generator
    • Built-in self-test (BIST)
    • Frequency response observation range
    • Multitone test
    • Sample-data system
    • Sigma-delta modulation
    • Single-tone test


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