Powered two-wheelers for sustainable mobility: A review of consumer adoption of electric motorcycles

Timo Eccarius, Chung-Cheng Lu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


In many countries, urbanization has seen a rapid increase in demand for mobility in cities. Much of this demand is met by private vehicles, of which conventionally powered two-wheelers significantly contribute to air pollution. The consumer adoption of alternative fuel powered two-wheelers has not been the subject of as much study as passenger cars. In particular, studies of consumer adoption of electric motorcycles, which are a rapidly emerging and an environmentally more sustainable alternative to conventional powered two-wheelers, are few. This study explores the extent of this research gap. The development of motorcycles is analyzed with a focus on Asia, which accounts for 80% of the global fleet. Powered two-wheelers are categorized in terms of regulatory, fuel and technical aspects. Studies of the adoption of electric motorcycles are reviewed. Operational models and deployment in ownership-based or access-based economical models are discussed. An overview of the research methods that are used in existing studies of electric motorcycles is given and the results and their implications are discussed. These findings provide a useful insight for future research, for transportation managers and for policymakers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-231
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Issue number3
StatePublished - 3 Mar 2020


  • Consumer adoption
  • PTW typology
  • electric motorcycles
  • literature review
  • powered two-wheelers


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