Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDES) and hexa-brominated biphenyls (Hexa-BBs) in fresh foods ingested in Taiwan

Jung Wei Chang, Chung Feng Hung, Ya Chen Hsu, Yi Ting Kao, Ching Chang Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexa-brominated biphenyls (Hexa-BBs) are bioaccumulative and aggregate in the food chain. Therefore, background monitoring and risk assessment for dietary intake are necessary. In present study, a systematic sampling method was first used to collect the high fat content foodstuff such as poultry, livestock, eggs, fish, other seafood, dairy products, and the infant foods and then foodstuff with high consumption in seven categories of 600 food samples. After integrating four years of background surveys of PBDE levels (2010–2013) and one year of that of Hexa-BBs (2013), the highest estimated daily intake (EDI) of PBDEs for Taiwanese food consumption was found in 0- to 3-year-olds (mean = 9.38 ng kg−1 bw d−1, the 95% upper limit of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS P95) was 21.52 ng kg−1 bw d−1), and the lowest in 16- to 18-year-old girls (mean = 3.35 ng kg−1 bw d−1, MCS P95 was 6.53 ng kg−1 bw d−1). Moreover, the highest of EDI of Hexa-BBs was found in 0–3 years old (mean = 0.007 ng kg−1 bw d−1, MCS P95 = 0.019 ng kg−1 bw d−1), and lowest in 17–18 years old female (mean = 0.002 ng/kg/day, MCS P95 = 0.005 ng kg−1 bw d−1). This study suggests that the large MOEs (>2.5) for the four important congeners BDE-47, -99, −153, and −209, indicate that the dietary exposures are not probably a significant health concern for Taiwanese.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1180-1189
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Food
  • Hexa-brominated biphenyls (Hexa-BBs)
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
  • Risk assessment


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