Polyamines are known to inhibit sequence specific DNA-binding activity of several zinc-finger transcription factors, including estrogen receptor (ER) binding to its cognate estrogen response element (ERE). The mechanism accounting for this disruption of protein-DNA interaction is unknown, although polyamine induction of DNA conformational changes has been suggested. To determine if polyamines can directly impair ER action, we compared the effects of putrescine (Putr), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) on ER DNA-binding (ER-ERE complex formation), ER ligand-binding (estradiol), ER structure (circular dichroism and sucrose gradient sedimentation), and the capacity of ER to transactivate an ERE-tk-CAT reporter in transient transfection assays. Polyamine concentrations causing 50% inhibition of ER-ERE formation (IC50 values) were found to be 1 mM for Putr, 4 mM for Spd, and 3 mM for Spm. This loss of ER DNA-binding was associated with a direct and irreversible effect on the ER DNA-binding domain (ER-DBD). Additionally, polyamines were observed to inhibit ER ligand-binding with IC50 values of 10 mM for Putr, 2 mM for Spd, and < 0.1 mM for Spm; and this correlated with a measureable change in higher-order ER structure (5S to 3.5S sedimentation) and inhibition of intracellular ER transactivation. These findings suggest that in ER-positive human breast tumors with increased polyamine (especially Spm) content, ER structure and function may be directly altered by tight-ion polyamine complexing that results in loss of ER-mediated gene regulation.
- DNA-binding domain (DBD)
- Estrogen receptor (ER)
- Estrogen response element (ERE)