Plasma Matrix Metalloproeteinase-9 Is Associated with Seizure and Angioarchitecture Changes in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

Yo Tsen Liu, Cheng Chia Lee, Chun Fu Lin, Hsiu Mei Wu, Wan Yuo Guo, Huai Che Yang, Feng Chi Chang, Kang Du Liou, Chung Jung Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Both angiogenesis and inflammation contribute to activation of matrix metalloproeteinase-9 (MMP-9), which dissolves the extracellular matrix, disrupts the blood–brain barrier, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs). The key common cytokine in both angiogenesis and inflammation is interleukin 6 (IL-6). Previous studies have shown elevated systemic MMP-9 and decreased systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in BAVM patients. However, the clinical utility of plasma cytokines is unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between plasma cytokines and the clinical presentations of BAVMs. Prospectively, we recruited naive BAVM patients without hemorrhage as the experimental group and unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) patients as the control group. All patients received digital subtraction angiography, and plasma cytokines were collected from the lesional common carotid artery. Plasma cytokine levels were determined using a commercially available, monoclonal antibody–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subgroup analysis based on hemorrhagic presentation and angiograchitecture was done for the BAVM group. Pearson correlations were calculated for the covariates. Means and differences for continuous and categorical variables were compared using Student’s t and χ2 tests respectively. Plasma MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in the BAVM group (42,945 ± 29,991 pg/mL) than in the UIA group (28,270 ± 17,119 pg/mL) (p < 0.001). Plasma MMP-9 levels in epileptic BAVMs (57,065 ± 35,732; n = 9) were higher than in non-epileptic BAVMs (35,032 ± 28,301; n = 19) (p = 0.049). Lower plasma MMP-9 levels were found in cases of BAVM with angiogenesis and with peudophlebitis. Plasma MMP-9 is a good biomarker reflecting ongoing vascular remodeling in BAVMs. Angiogenesis and pseudophlebitis are two angioarchitectural signs that reflect MMP-9 activities and can potentially serve as imaging biomarkers for epileptic BAVMs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecular Neurobiology
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Angiogenesis
  • Brain arteriovenous malformation
  • Inflammation
  • MMP-9
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor


Dive into the research topics of 'Plasma Matrix Metalloproeteinase-9 Is Associated with Seizure and Angioarchitecture Changes in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this