Phone-nomenon 2.0: A compact thermal model for smartphones

Yu Min Lee*, Hong Wen Chiou, Shinyu Shiau, Chi Wen Pan, Shih Hung Ting

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a compact thermal model for smartphones, Phone-nomenon 2.0, to predict the thermal behavior of smartphones. In the beginning, non-linearities of internal and external heat transfer mechanisms of smartphones and a compact thermal model for these non-linearities have been studied and proposed. Then, an iterative simulation procedure to handle these non-linearities was developed, and the basic simulation framework which is one option in Phone-nomenon 2.0 was established and we call it Phone-nomenon.Iter. Finally, the linearisation approach was applied, and model order reduction techniques to enhance and speed up the basic framework were employed, and these two options Phone-nomenon.Lin and Phone-nomenon.LinMOR were named. Compared with a commercial tool, ANSYS Icepak, Phone-nomenon.Iter can achieve two orders of magnitude speedup with the maximum error being less than 1.90% for steady-state simulations and three orders of magnitude speedup with the temperature difference being less than 0.65°C for transient simulations. In addition, the speedup of Phone-nomenon.Lin over Phone-nomenon.Iter can be at least 4.22× and 3.26× for steady-state and transient simulations, respectively. Moreover, the speedup of Phone-nomenon.LinMOR over Phone-nomenon.Lin is at least 2.57×.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIET Computers and Digital Techniques
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • linearisation
  • model order reduction
  • smartphones
  • system level
  • thermal simulation


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