Pharmacologic interventions for Kawasaki disease in children: A network meta-analysis of 56 randomized controlled trials

Wei Te Lei, Ling Sai Chang, Bing Yan Zeng, Yu Kang Tu, Ritei Uehara, Yutaka J. Matsuoka, Kuan Pin Su, Pi Chang Lee, Joao L. Cavalcante, Brendon Stubbs, Pao Yen Lin, Yi Cheng Wu, Chih Wei Hsu, Tien Yu Chen, Yen Wen Chen, Pin Yang Yeh, Cheuk Kwan Sun, Ping Tao Tseng*, Yu Hsuan Kao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Although the current consensus recommends a standard treatment of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin with high-dose aspirin to manage Kawasaki disease (KD), the use of different adjunctive therapies remains controversial. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different existing interventions for the initial and refractory stages of KD. Methods: An NMA of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using the frequentist model applied after electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, ClinicalKey, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science. The main outcomes were reduced fever duration/diminished severity of fever subsided. The initial stage of KD was defined as the first stage to treat patients with KD; the refractory stage of KD represents KD patients who failed to respond to standard KD treatment. The cut-off points for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were low (100–400 mg), medium (1 g), and high (at least 2 g). Findings: A total of fifty-six RCTs with 6486 participants were included. NMA demonstrated that the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [mean difference=−1.76 days (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): −3.65 to 0.13 days) compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the shortest fever duration; likewise, the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [odds ratio (OR)=0.50, 95% CIs: 0.18–1.37 compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the smallest incidence of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in the initial-stage KD. In the refractory-stage KD, the high-dosage IVIG + pulse steroid therapy (OR=0.04, 95% CIs: 0.00–0.43 compared to the high-dosage IVIG only) had the best rate of decline of fever; likewise, the high-dosage IVIG + ciclosporin [OR=0.05 (95% CIs: 0.00–1.21) compared to the high-dosage IVIG only] exhibited the smallest incidence of CAL. Infliximab significantly improved resolution compared to the high-dosage IVIG only group (OR=0.20, 95%CIs: 0.07–0.62) in refractory-stage KD. Interpretation: The NMA demonstrated that the combination therapy with the standard therapy of IVIG and aspirin might have an additional effect on shortening the duration of fever and lowering the CAL incidence rate in patients with acute KD. Moreover, the combination therapy with high-dose IVIG and pulse steroid therapy or cyclosporine therapy might have an additional effect on improving the rate of decline of fever and lowering the incidence rate of CAL in children with refractory KD. Because some of the findings of this NMA should be considered hypothesis-generating rather than confirmatory, further evidence from de novo randomised trials is needed to support our results. Funding: None.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103946
JournalEBioMedicine
Volume78
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Coronary artery lesion
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Pediatrics

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