PERM1 (PGC-1/ERR-induced regulator in muscle 1) is a muscle-specific protein induced by PGC-1 and ERRs. Previous studies have shown that PERM1 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism in cardiomyocytes in vitro. However, the role of endogenous PERM1 in the heart remains to be investigated with loss-of-function studies in vivo. We report the generation and characterization of systemic Perm1 knockout (KO) mice. The baseline cardiac phenotype of the homozygous Perm1 KO mice appeared normal. However, RNA-sequencing and unbiased pathway analyses showed that homozygous downregulation of PERM1 leads to downregulation of genes involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the heart. Transcription factor binding site analyses suggested that PPARα and PGC-1α are involved in changes in the gene expression profile. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that PERM1 interacts with the proximal regions of PPAR response elements (PPREs) in endogenous promoters of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Co-immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assays showed that PERM1 promoted transcription via the PPRE, partly in a PPARα and PGC-1α dependent manner. These results suggest that endogenous PERM1 is involved in the transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation through physical interaction with PPARα and PGC-1α in the heart in vivo.