Jun Chen*, Ji Sheng Hasn, Zhi Qi Zhao, Feng Wei, Jen Chuen Hsieh, Lan Bao, Andrew C.N. Chen, Yi Dai, Bi Fa Fan, Jian Guo Gu, Shuang Lin Hao, San Jue Hu, Yong Hua Ji, Yong Jie Li, Yun Qing Li, Qing Lin, Xian Guo Liu, Yan Qing Liu, Yan Lu, Fei LuoChao Ma, Yun Hai Qiu, Zhi Ren Rao, Lin Shi, Bai Chuang Shyu, Xue Jun Song, Jing Shi Tang, Yuan Xiang Tao, You Wan, Jia Shuang Wang, Ke Wei Wang, Yun Wang, Guang Yin Xu, Tian Le Xu, Hao Jun You, Long Chuan Yu, Sheng Yuan Yu, Da Ying Zhang, De Ren Zhang, Jun Ming Zhang, Xu Zhang, Yu Qiu Zhang, Min Zhuo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Pain is one of the most common causes of suffering. The physiological function of pain is to alert the body of potentially noxious conditions encountered from the external or internal environment. Pain can be differentiated into acute pain and chronic pain according to its duration, with 3 months as a tentative defining point in humans. Acute pain is good for protection from dangerous health issues and relatively easy to control. Chronic pain, on the other hand, is absolutely annoying and notoriously difficult to manage. Chronic pain can be induced by various causes, such as inflammatory or metabolic disorders of the peripheral tissue, musculoskeletal strain, peripheral or central nervous lesion and diseases, etc., yet their common mechanism is hypersensitivity of the pain transmission and perception systems, which may result in a structural disorganization. The suffering from chronic pain has been a powerful driving force for pain research both in academic institutions and in the industry. This chapter focuses on the system of noxious signal transmission, from the ion channel and nociceptor to the psychological reaction, from the ascending pain perception pathways to the descending pain modulatory pathways, being facilitatory or inhibitory. Principles of biomedical interventions on acute and chronic pain are also outlined.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeuroscience in the 21st Century
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Basic to Clinical: Third Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages59
ISBN (Electronic)9783030888329
ISBN (Print)9783030888312
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Acupuncture modulation
  • Acupuncture modulation of pain
  • Amygdala
  • Axonal reflex
  • Behavioral pain hypersensitivity
  • Bell-Magendie law
  • Biochemical neuroimaging
  • Brain matrix
  • Brain mechanisms
  • Cerebellum
  • Cortical and subcortical processing
  • Disinhibition
  • Drug modulation
  • Functional neuroimaging
  • Gabapentin
  • Gate-control theory of pain
  • Gene therapy and stem cell treatment
  • Glial cells
  • Hyperalgesia
  • Hypothalamus
  • Insula
  • K2P
  • Nerve injury-induced neural plasticity
  • Neurochemical markers
  • Neurogenic inflammation
  • Neuromodulation
  • Neuromodulation, Pain
  • Neuropathic
  • Nociception
  • Nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR)
  • Nociceptive specific (NS) neurons
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • P2X3 receptor
  • P2Y receptors
  • Pain
  • Pain
  • Pain
  • Pain
  • Pain
  • Pain matrix
  • Peptidergic population of C nociceptors
  • Periaqueductal gray (PAG)
  • Peripheral mechanisms
  • Peripheral nociceptors
  • Placebo modulation
  • Placebo modulation
  • Primary afferent depolarization (PAD)
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • Psychological modulation
  • Rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)
  • Specificity theory
  • Spinal cord dorsal horn
  • Spinal pain sensory neurons
  • Structural neuroimaging
  • Tanezumab
  • Thalamic pain syndrome
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1)
  • Tripartite synaptic model
  • Vanilloid receptor-like protein 1 (VRL1)
  • Ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO)
  • Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGPCs)
  • Voxel-based morphometry
  • Windup phenomenon


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