Optimization on Bi-Directional PNP ESD Protection Device for High-Voltage FlexRay Applications

Chen Wei Hsu, Yu Hsin Li, Ming Dou Ker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The I/O of CMOS integrated circuits of for FlexRay communication has to be tolerant with the input signals of <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\pm$</tex-math> </inline-formula>60 V in its normal applications. Thus, the on-chip electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection devices for such I/O pin must be kept off unless the bus voltage is higher than 60 V or lower than <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$-$</tex-math> </inline-formula>60 V. In this work, the bi-directional p-n-p (Bi-PNP) device was proposed and optimized for bi-directional ESD protection in the FlexRay communication systems. The proposed Bi-PNP devices were verified in a 0.15-<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\mu $</tex-math> </inline-formula>m BCD technology. The relationships between the layout spacing of doping layers and other device characteristics, including trigger voltage (Vt1) and breakdown voltage (BV), were investigated, respectively. The size dependence on the ESD robustness was also studied. The transient response of the proposed Bi-PNP device under fast ESD stress was investigated by very fast TLP (vf-TLP) and TLP measurement. In addition, the empirical correlations of the It2 on the HBM and IEC 61000-4-2 failure levels were estimated. Finally, the recommended size and parameters of the proposed Bi-PNP device for <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\pm$</tex-math> </inline-formula>60 V FlexRay application are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Bi-directional electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection
  • Bidirectional control
  • Current measurement
  • Electrostatic discharges
  • ESD
  • FlexRay
  • high voltage ESD protection
  • High-voltage techniques
  • Pins
  • Semiconductor device measurement
  • Temperature measurement


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