On Minimizing Internal Data Migrations of Flash Devices via Lifetime-Retention Harmonization

Ming Chang Yang*, Chun Feng Wu, Shuo Han Chen, Yi Ling Lin, Che Wei Chang, Yuan Hao Chang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


With the emerge of high-density triple-level-cell (TLC) and 3D NAND flash, the access performance and endurance of flash devices are degraded due to the downscaling of flash cells. In addition, we observe that the mismatch between data lifetime requirement and flash block retention capability could further worsen the access performance and endurance. This is because the 'lifetime-retention mismatch' could result in massive internal data migrations during garbage collection and data refreshing, and further aggravate the already-worsened access performance and endurance of high-density NAND flash devices. Such an observation motivates us to resolve the lifetime-retention mismatch problem by proposing a 'time harmonization strategy', which coordinates the flash block retention capability with the data lifetime requirement to enhance the performance of flash devices with very limited endurance degradation. Specifically, this study aims to lower the amount of internal data migrations caused by garbage collection and data refreshing via storing data of different lifetime requirement in flash blocks with suitable retention capability. The trace-driven evaluation results reveal that the proposed design can effectively reduce the average response time by about 99 percent on average without sacrificing the overall endurance, as compared with the state-of-the-art designs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9076275
Pages (from-to)428-439
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computers
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2021


  • block retention time
  • data lifetime
  • data refreshing
  • Flash memory


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