Objective diagnosis of ADHD through movement analysis by using a smart chair with piezoelectric material

Tung Ming Chang, Rong Ching Wu, Rei Cheng Yang, Ching Tai Chiang, Yi Hung Chiu, Chen Sen Ouyang, Yun Ming Wang, Ming Hsu Wu, Guang Chung Lin, Lung Chang Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in schoolchildren. ADHD diagnoses are generally made based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. The diagnosis is made clinically based on observation and information provided by parents and teachers, which is highly subjective and can lead to disparate results. Considering that hyperactivity is one of the main symptoms of ADHD, the inaccuracy of ADHD diagnosis based on subjective criteria necessitates the identification of a method to objectively diagnose ADHD. Methods: In this study, a medical chair containing a piezoelectric material was applied to objectively analyze movements of patients with ADHD, which were compared with those of patients without ADHD. This study enrolled 62 patients—31 patients with ADHD and 31 patients without ADHD. During the clinical evaluation, participants’ movements were recorded by the piezoelectric material for analysis. The variance, zero-crossing rate, and high energy rate of movements were subsequently analyzed. Results: The results revealed that the variance, zero-crossing rate, and high energy rate were significantly higher in patients with ADHD than in those without ADHD. Classification performance was excellent in both groups, with the area under the curve as high as 98.00%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the use of a smart chair equipped with piezoelectric material is an objective and potentially useful method for supporting the diagnosis of ADHD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatrics and Neonatology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • piezoelectric material
  • smart chair


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