Noninvasive investigations of human glymphatic dynamics in a diseased model

Chia Hung Wu, Yu Kuo, Feng Chi Chang, Jiing Feng Lirng, Yu Hsiang Ling, Yen Feng Wang, Hsiu Mei Wu, Jong Ling Fuh, Chung Jung Lin, Shuu Jiun Wang*, Shih Pin Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: To explore human glymphatic dynamics in a diseased model via a noninvasive technique. Methods: Patients with reversible vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) presenting with blood-brain barrier disruption, i.e., para-arterial gadolinium leakage on 3-T 3-dimensional isotropic contrast-enhanced T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-T2-FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were prospectively enrolled. Consecutive 9-min-CE-T2-FLAIR for 5–6 times (early panel) after intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administration and one time-varying deferred scan of noncontrast T2-FLAIR (delayed panel) were performed. In Bundle 1, we measured the calibrated signal intensities (cSIs) of 10 different anatomical locations. In Bundle 2, brain-wide measurements of para-arterial glymphatic volumes, means, and medians of the signal intensities were conducted. We defined mean (mCoIs) or median (mnCoIs) concentration indices as products of volumes and signal intensities. Results: Eleven subjects were analyzed. The cSIs demonstrated early increase (9 min) in perineural spaces: (cranial nerve [CN] V, p = 0.008; CN VII + VII, p = 0.003), choroid plexus (p = 0.003), white matter (p = 0.004) and parasagittal dura (p = 0.004). The volumes, mCoIs, and mnCoIs demonstrated increasing rates of enhancement after 9 to 18 min and decreasing rates after 45 to 54 min. The GBCA was transported centrifugally and completely removed within 961–1086 min after administration. Conclusions: The exogenous GBCA leaked into the para-arterial glymphatics could be completely cleared around 961 to 1086 min after administration in a human model of BBB disruption. The tracer enhancement started variously in different intracranial regions but was eventually cleared centrifugally to brain convexity, probably towards glymphatic-meningeal lymphatics exits. Clinical relevance statement: Glymphatic clearance time intervals and the centrifugal directions assessed by a noninvasive approach may have implications for clinical glymphatic evaluation in the near future. Key Points: • This study aimed to investigate the human glymphatic dynamics in a noninvasive diseased model. • The intracranial MR-detectable gadolinium-based contrast agents were removed centrifugally within 961 to 1086 min. • The glymphatic dynamics was demonstrable by enhancing MRI in an in vivo diseased model noninvasively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9087-9098
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Contrast media
  • Gadolinium
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Vasoconstriction


Dive into the research topics of 'Noninvasive investigations of human glymphatic dynamics in a diseased model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this