Nanogap CMOS-MEMS Pirani Gauge Based on Titanium-Nitride Heating Element for Broad-Range Vacuum Characterization

Manu Garg*, Pushpapraj Singh, Yi Chiu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article presents a titanium-nitride composite (TiN-C)-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor microelectromechanical system (CMOS-MEMS) Pirani gauge integrated into the back-end-of-line (BEOL) layers. A microbeam architecture is utilized as the sensing element consisting of a stack of TiN and SiO2. The structure utilizes the sandwiched (TiN/AlCu/TiN) metal line configuration to craft the suspended sensing element having a nanogap from the substrate. TiN serves as the heating element in the sensing element, while SiO2 provides mechanical support to the structure. Gauges with lengths varying from 60 to 90~mu text{m} are proposed, while the width is kept the same, i.e., 4~mu text{m}. Since the BEOL-integrated MEMS devices are prone to suffer from residual stress, an optical profilometer analysis is performed to quantify the effective value of the suspended gap. Furthermore, temperature profiles of the proposed designs are evaluated using COMSOL Multiphysics. Finally, the fabricated gauges are tested for pressure-dependent response from 1 to 10^{{6}} Pa and a performance comparison is established. In the monolithic CMOS-MEMS implementation, a lower detection limit of 15.5, 12.3, 10.3, and 8.3 Pa is obtained for different gauge lengths, while the upper detection range is the same, i.e., 10^{{6}} Pa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1214-1219
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2024


  • Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor microelectromechanical systems (CMOS-MEMSs)
  • Joule heating
  • MEMS
  • Pirani gauge
  • monolithic integration
  • vacuum detection


Dive into the research topics of 'Nanogap CMOS-MEMS Pirani Gauge Based on Titanium-Nitride Heating Element for Broad-Range Vacuum Characterization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this