MMP-9 deletion attenuates arteriovenous fistula neointima through reduced perioperative vascular inflammation

Yu Chung Shih, Po Yuan Chen, Tai-Ming Ko, Po-Hsun Huang, Hsu Ma, Der-Cherng Tarng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in vascular inflammation and participates in vascular remodeling, including aneurysm dilatation and arterial neointima development. Neointima at the arteriovenous (AV) fistula anastomosis site primarily causes AV fistula stenosis and failure; however, the effects of MMP-9 on perioperative AV fistula remodeling remain unknown. Therefore, we created AV fistulas (end-to-side anastomosis) in wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 knockout mice with chronic kidney disease to further clarify this. Neointima progressively developed in the AV fistula venous segment of WT mice during the four-week postoperative course, and MMP-9 knockout increased the lumen area and attenuated neointima size by reducing smooth muscle cell and collagen components. Early perioperative AV fistula mRNA sequencing data revealed that inflammation-related gene sets were negatively enriched in AV fistula of MMP-9 knockout mice compared to that in WT mice. qPCR results also showed that inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), were downregulated. In addition, Western blot results showed that MMP-9 knockout reduced CD44 and RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation. In vitro, MMP-9 addition enhanced IL-6 and MCP-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as cell migration, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. In conclusion, MMP-9 knockout attenuated AV fistula stenosis by reducing perioperative vascular inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5448
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal Of Molecular Sciences
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • Arteriovenous fistula
  • Matrix metalloproteinase 9
  • Neointima
  • Vascular inflammation


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