Migraine and greater pain symptoms at 10-year follow-up among patients with major depressive disorder

Ching I. Hung, Chia Yih Liu, Ching Hui Yang, Shuu Jiun Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: No study has investigated the associations of migraine with pain symptoms over a ten-year period among outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate this issue. Methods: At baseline, the study enrolled 290 outpatients with MDD and followed-up the patients at six-month, two-year, and ten-year time points. MDD and anxiety comorbidities were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-text revision. Migraine was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders. The bodily pain subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-BP) and the pain subscale (PS) of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms scale were also used. Generalized Estimating Equation models were employed to investigate the longitudinal impacts of migraine on pain symptoms. Results: MDD patients with migraine had lower SF-BP and higher PS scores than those without. Depression, anxiety, and headache indices were significantly correlated with SF-BP and PS scores. The higher the frequency of migraine, the more often patients suffered from pain symptoms. Patients with migraine at all investigated time points suffered from pain symptoms most of the time (ranging from 60.0% to 73.7%) over the 10 years. After controlling for depression and anxiety, migraine was independently associated with a decreased SF-BP score (by 8.93 points) and an increased PS score (by 1.33 points). Conclusion: Migraine was an important comorbidity associated with greater severities of pain symptoms during long-term follow-up. Migraine treatment should be integrated into the treatment of depression to improve pain symptoms and quality of life in the pain dimension.

Original languageEnglish
Article number56
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Headache and Pain
Issue number1
StatePublished - 17 Jul 2018


  • Depression
  • Headache
  • Pain
  • Quality of life
  • Somatization


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