Immunotherapy modulating the tumor microenvironment (TME) immune function has a promising effect on various types of cancers, but it remains as a limited efficacy in colon cancer. Midostaurin (PKC412) has been used in the clinical treatment of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutant acute myeloid leukemia and has demonstrated immunomodulatory activity. We aimed to evaluate the effect of midostaurin on the modulation of TME and the efficacy of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) against colon cancer. Midostaurin inhibited the growth of murine CT26 and human HCT116 and SW480 cells with multinucleation and micronuclei formation in morphology examination. The cell cycle arrested in the G2/M phase and the formation of the polyploid phase was noted. The formation of cytosolic DNA, including double-strand and single-strand DNA, was increased. Midostaurin increased mRNA expressions of cGAS, IRF3, and IFNAR1 in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and mouse spleen macrophages. The protein expressions of Trex-1, c-KIT, and Flt3, but not PKCα/β/γ and VEGFR1, were down-regulated in midostaurin-treated colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and macrophages. Trex-1 protein expression was abrogated after FLT3L activation. In vivo, the combination of midostaurin and anti-PD-1 exhibited the greatest growth inhibition on a CT26-implanted tumor without major toxicity. TME analysis demonstrated that midostaurin alone decreased Treg cells and increased neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. NKG2D+ and PD-1 were suppressed and M1 macrophage was increased after combination therapy. When combined with anti-PD-1, STING and INFβ protein expression was elevated in the tumor. The oral administration of midostaurin may have the potential to enhance anti-PD-1 efficacy, accompanied by the modulation of cytosolic DNA-sensing signaling and tumor microenvironment.
- anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)
- cGAS-STING signaling
- colon cancer
- midostaurin (PKC412)
- tumor microenvironment