Methylxanthine Drug Monitoring with Wearable Sweat Sensors

Li-Chia Tai, Wei Gao, Minghan Chao, Mallika Bariya, Quynh P. Ngo, Ziba Shahpar, Hnin Y.Y. Nyein, Hyejin Park, Junfeng Sun, Younsu Jung, Eric Wu, Hossain M. Fahad, Der-Hsien Lien, Hiroki Ota, Gyoujin Cho, Ali Javey*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

231 Scopus citations


Drug monitoring plays crucial roles in doping control and precision medicine. It helps physicians tailor drug dosage for optimal benefits, track patients' compliance to prescriptions, and understand the complex pharmacokinetics of drugs. Conventional drug tests rely on invasive blood draws. While urine and sweat are attractive alternative biofluids, the state-of-the-art methods require separate sample collection and processing steps and fail to provide real-time information. Here, a wearable platform equipped with an electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry sensing module for drug monitoring is presented. A methylxanthine drug, caffeine, is selected to demonstrate the platform's functionalities. Sweat caffeine levels are monitored under various conditions, such as drug doses and measurement time after drug intake. Elevated sweat caffeine levels upon increasing dosage and confirmable caffeine physiological trends are observed. This work leverages a wearable sweat sensing platform toward noninvasive and continuous point-of-care drug monitoring and management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1707442
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number23
StatePublished - 6 Jun 2018


  • drug monitoring
  • electrochemical sensors
  • flexible electronics
  • wearable biosensors


Dive into the research topics of 'Methylxanthine Drug Monitoring with Wearable Sweat Sensors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this