Memristive True Random Number Generator with Intrinsic Two-Dimensional Physical Unclonable Function

Bo Liu*, Jing Ma, Han Hsiang Tai, Dharmendra Verma, Mamina Sahoo, Ying Feng Chang, Hanyuan Liang, Shiwei Feng, Lain Jong Li, Tuo Hung Hou, Chao Sung Lai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The development of physical-level primitives for cryptographic applications has emerged as a trend in the electronic community, while the methods for protecting the generators from counterfeiting have yet to be explored. In this study, two-dimensional electronic fingerprinting was demonstrated and integrated into a memristive true random number generator (TRNG). For the device function of the TRNG, two modes of primitives are presented, and the physical entropy sources are analyzed via a recurrent neural network, which is resilient for machine learning prediction. For anticounterfeiting of the device, a two-dimensional physical unclonable function (PUF) could provide a high entropy value and multiple verification codes. Because of its extremely high surface-to-volume ratio, high sensitivity to the environment, inevitable randomness introduced in the fabrication process, and the ability to be transferred onto arbitrary substrates (easy to integrate into a single device), this two-dimensional PUF device could be a general solution for anticounterfeiting of nanoelectronics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)714-720
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Electronic Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - 28 Feb 2023


  • long−short-term memory
  • memristor
  • physical unclonable function
  • Raman spectrum
  • true random number generator


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