Purpose: MRI and MR angiography (MRA) are noninvasive methods for examining cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CSDAVFs) after radiosurgery. In this study, we investigated the accuracy of unenhanced MRI/3-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) MRA in evaluating CSDAVF obliteration as compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Methods: From 1995–2012, 48 cases of CSDAVFs received Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) and had undergone both unenhanced MRI/3D TOF MRA and DSA for posttreatment evaluation. Two blinded observers independently interpreted the results of MRI/MRA. The results of MRI/MRA were compared with those of DSA. The sensitivity (the probability of MRI/MRA showing obliteration when DSA showed complete obliteration), specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for CSDAVF obliteration were reported. Results: The median interval between the final MRI/MRA and the subsequent DSA was 2 months. Follow-up DSA revealed that 38 of 48 (79.2 %) CSDAVFs were completely obliterated. The results of interobserver agreement assessment showed almost perfect agreement between the 2 observers. For unenhanced MRI/3D TOF MRA, the observed sensitivity was 84.2 %, specificity was 100 %, positive predictive value was 100 %, and negative predictive value was 62.5 %. Conclusions: Unenhanced MRI/3D TOF MRA alone may be adequate to document the complete obliteration of CSDAVFs after GKS. Time-resolved MRA or DSA can be reserved for a suspected residual CSDAVF after a sufficient latency period after GKS.
- Cavernous sinus
- Digital subtraction angiography
- Dural arteriovenous fistula
- Gamma knife
- Magnetic resonance angiography
- Stereotactic radiosurgery