Luminal pressure gradient and risk of arteriovenous fistula nonmaturation

Chi Heng Kuo, Te I. Chang, Cheng Hsien Chen, Chun You Chen, Hui Ling Hsieh, Shih Chang Hsu, Ho Shun Cheng, Yuh Mou Sue, Tso Hsiao Chen, Yung Ho Hsu, Feng Yen Lin, Chun Ming Shih, Po Hsun Huang, Chung Te Liu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


While arteriovenous fistula (AVF) nonmaturation is a major issue of hemodialysis care, an effective treatment to improve AVF maturation remains lacking. AVF introduces pulsatile arterial blood flow into its venous limb and produces high luminal pressure gradient, which may have adverse effect on vascular remodeling. As such, the aim of the present study is to investigate effect of luminal pressure gradient on AVF nonmaturation. This single-center, prospective observational study includes patients receiving autologous AVF creation. Participants received early postoperative ultrasound 5-7 days after surgery to collect parameters including diameters, flow rates, and volume at inflow and outflow sites. Luminal pressure gradient was estimated by using modified Bernoulli equation. The outcome was spontaneous AVF maturation within 8 weeks after surgery without intervention. Thirty patients were included, of which the mean age was 66.9 years and 70% were male. At the end of study, 13 (43.3%) patients had spontaneous AVF maturation. All demographic and laboratory characteristics were similar between patients with mature and nonmature AVF. Regarding ultrasonographic parameters, nonmature AVF showed significantly higher inflow/outflow diameter ratio, inflow velocity, and luminal pressure gradient. While these 3 parameters were significantly correlated, multivariate logistic regression showed their significant association with AVF nonmaturation. Receiver operating characteristic curve exhibited their high predictive value for AVF nonmaturation. Our findings showed that higher inflow/outflow ratio, inflow velocity, and AVF luminal pressure gradient in early postoperative ultrasound predicted risk of AVF nonmaturation. Reducing inflow/outflow diameter ratio or inflow rate may be an approach to improve AVF maturation. The predictive value of this early assessment might have impact on the clinical practice of AVF care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E30835
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number39
StatePublished - 30 Sep 2022


  • arteriovenous fistula
  • end-stage renal disease
  • hemodialysis
  • nonmaturation
  • ultrasound


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