Lugdunin production and activity in Staphylococcus lugdunensis isolates are associated with its genotypes

Shih Cheng Chang, Cheng Yen Kao, Lee Chung Lin, Jazon Harl Hidrosollo, Jang Jih Lu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Lugdunin produced by Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been shown to have broad inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria; however, lugdunin activity among S. lugdunensis isolates and its association with different agr, SCCmec, and sequence types remain unclear. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify S. lugdunensis and collected 202 S. lugdunensis samples for further assays. Agar spot tests were performed to characterize S. lugdunensis lugdunin production and activity. Multilocus sequence typing, SCCmec, and agr genotyping were performed on S. lugdunensis. In all, 91 Staphylococcus aureus strains with varying vancomycin susceptibilities were used to examine lugdunin activity in S. lugdunensis. In total, 48 S. lugdunensis strains (23.8%) were found to be oxacillin-resistant S. lugdunensis (ORSL), whereas 154 (76.2%) were classified as oxacillin-sensitive S. lugdunensis (OSSL). Moreover, 16 (33.3%) ORSL and 35 (22.7%) OSSL strains showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Our data showed that most lugdunin-producing ORSL strains (14/48, 29.2%) were of ST3-SCCmec V-agr II genotypes, whereas most lugdunin-producing OSSL strains (15/154, 9.7%) were of ST3-agr II, followed by ST1-agr I (10/154, 6.5%). Our data also revealed that lugdunin exhibited weak inhibitory activity against the VISA ST239 isolate. In addition, we observed that ST239 VSSA was more resistant to lugdunin than ST5, ST59, and ST45 VSSA. Taken together, our data pioneered the epidemiology of lugdunin production in S. lugdunensis isolates and revealed its association with genotypes. However, further molecular and bioinformatics investigations are needed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lugdunin production and activity. IMPORTANCE Lugdunin is active against both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci by dissipating their membrane potential. However, the association of lugdunin activity with the genotypes of Staphylococcus lugdunensis has not been addressed. Here, we show the high prevalence of lugdunin-producing strains among ST1 (83.3%), ST2 (66.7%), and ST3 (53.3%) S. lugdunensis. Moreover, we identified the antibacterial activity of lugdunin-producing strains against VISA and hVISA. These results shed light on the potential application of lugdunin for the treatment of drug-resistant pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMicrobiology spectrum
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • genotype
  • lugdunin
  • S. aureus
  • Staphylococcus lugdunensis


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