Low-temperature hybrid bonding with high electromigration resistance scheme for application on heterogeneous integration

Zhong Jie Hong, Demin Liu, Han Wen Hu, Chien Kang Hsiung, Chih I. Cho, Chih Han Chen, Jui Han Liu, Ming Wei Weng, Mu Ping Hsu, Ying Chan Hung, Kuan Neng Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The novel low-temperature Cu/SiO2 hybrid bonding scheme using cluster-Ag passivation has been proposed in this study for the heterogeneous integration application. With the addition of cluster-Ag passivation layer, electromigration and reliability of hybrid bonding structure have been investigated for the first time, indicating negligible deterioration of electrical performance in the bonding structure after applying 107 A/cm2 current density for over 2000 h. The bonding mechanism of cluster-Ag passivation has been explored by the analysis of HR-TEM, and the difference between cluster-Ag passivation and thin-film Ag passivation has been discussed in detail. Based on an ultrathin cluster-Ag passivation layer, Cu-Cu bonding can be achieved at 70 ℃, showing high mechanical strength and good reliability. Therefore, the achievements reported in this paper realize Cu-Cu bonding and hybrid bonding with high quality and high reliability under ultra-low thermal budget, paving the way for the development of next-generation heterogeneous integration and three-dimensional integrated circuits (3DIC) technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number155470
JournalApplied Surface Science
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • 3DIC
  • Bonding mechanism
  • Cu bonding
  • Low temperature bonding
  • Metal bonding


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