Low-defect-density WS2 by hydroxide vapor phase deposition

Yi Wan, En Li, Zhihao Yu, Jing Kai Huang, Ming Yang Li, Ang Sheng Chou, Yi Te Lee, Chien Ju Lee, Hung Chang Hsu, Qin Zhan, Areej Aljarb, Jui Han Fu, Shao Pin Chiu, Xinran Wang, Juhn Jong Lin, Ya Ping Chiu, Wen Hao Chang, Han Wang, Yumeng Shi, Nian LinYingchun Cheng*, Vincent Tung*, Lain Jong Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting monolayers such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising channel materials to extend Moore’s Law in advanced electronics. Synthetic TMD layers from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are scalable for fabrication but notorious for their high defect densities. Therefore, innovative endeavors on growth reaction to enhance their quality are urgently needed. Here, we report that the hydroxide W species, an extremely pure vapor phase metal precursor form, is very efficient for sulfurization, leading to about one order of magnitude lower defect density compared to those from conventional CVD methods. The field-effect transistor (FET) devices based on the proposed growth reach a peak electron mobility ~200 cm2/Vs (~800 cm2/Vs) at room temperature (15 K), comparable to those from exfoliated flakes. The FET device with a channel length of 100 nm displays a high on-state current of ~400 µA/µm, encouraging the industrialization of 2D materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4149
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


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