Background: Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) has emerged as the predominant pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial pathogen in parts of Asia, including Taiwan. The reasons for the significant increase in MAB infections in the non-cystic fibrosis (CF) populations are poorly understood. The study aimed to elucidate whether this increase is related to the spread of the globally successful clone of MAB. Methods: We performed multilocus sequence typing of 371 nonduplicated MAB pulmonary isolates from 371 patients sampled between 2010–2017 at seven hospitals across Taiwan. Results: In total, 183 (49.3%) isolates were M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAB-a), 187 (50.4%) were M. abscessus subsp. massiliense (MAB-m), and 1 (0.3%) was M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (MAB-b). MAB-a sequence type (ST)1 (23.7%) and ST127 (3.8%), followed by MAB-m ST48 (16.2%), ST117 (15.1%), ST23 (8.6%) were most common overall. Of MAB-a strains, 50 (27.3%) belonged to novel STs and 38 (10.2%) were singleton strains, while of MAB-m strains, only 10 (5.3%) were novel and 8 (2.2%) were singletons. From 2010 to 2017, the frequency of the historically dominant ST1 declined from 28.6% to 22.5%, whereas the recently emerged globally successful clonal cluster 3, ST23 and ST48, increased from 14.3% to 40.0%. Conclusions: The dominance of ST1 particularly in the last 2 years of this study appears to be declining, while ST23, reported in outbreaks among CF and post-surgical cohorts across the Americas and Europe, alongside the closely related ST48, is present among non-CF populations in Taiwan. These trends need to be confirmed with further ongoing studies to track the molecular epidemiology of clinical MAB isolates worldwide.