Background: Catheter ablation is a current therapeutic approach for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, its efficacy for long-standing persistent AF remains suboptimal. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a panoramic mapping system (CARTOFINDER, Biosense Webster) can guide pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and additional potential AF drivers. Methods: A total of 76 patients with nonparoxysmal AF referred for ablation guided by a novel high-density panoramic mapping system with CARTOFINDER were prospectively enrolled. Of this cohort, 40 patients (52.6%) had long-standing persistent AF (CARTOFINDER group). We then retrospectively screened the patients with long-standing persistent AF undergoing conventional PV isolation and elimination of non-PV triggers during the contemporary period (conventional group). They were matched at a 1:2 ratio (40 patients in group 1 received ablation guided by CARTOFINDER; 80 patients in group 2 receiving conventional PV isolation and elimination of non-PV triggers). Results: During follow-up, patients in group 1 had a lower recurrence AF rate than those in group 2 (P = .040). There was no difference in recurrence of atrial flutter (P = .996) and atrial tachycardia (P = .525). In Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, AF duration and PV isolation along with AF driver ablation using a panoramic mapping system with CARTOFINDER both were independent predictors of recurrent AF after catheter ablation of long-standing persistent AF. Conclusion: Identification of the potential drivers in long-standing AF is crucial. Compared with conventional PV isolation and elimination of non-PV triggers, ablation guided by a high-density panoramic mapping system (CARTOFINDER) might have a better outcome in patients with long-standing persistent AF.
- Long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation
- Substrate modification