Laser transverse modes with ray-wave duality: A review

Yung Fu Chen*, Ching Hsuan Wang, Xin Liang Zheng, Min Xiang Hsieh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


We present a systematic overview on laser transverse modes with ray-wave duality. We start from the spectrum of eigenfrequencies in ideal spherical cavities to display the critical role of degeneracy for unifying the Hermite–Gaussian eigenmodes and planar geometric modes. We subsequently review the wave representation for the elliptical modes that generally carry the orbital angular momentum. Next, we manifest the fine structures of eigenfrequencies in a spherical cavity with astigmatism to derive the wave-packet representation for Lissajous geometric modes. Finally, the damping effect on the formation of transverse modes is generally reviewed. The present overview is believed to provide important insights into the ray-wave correspondence in mesoscopic optics and laser physics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8913
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number19
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • Geometric mode
  • Laser cavity
  • Ray-wave duality
  • Transverse mode


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