Keyhole and zero-padding approaches for reduced-encoding diffusion tensor imaging of the mouse brains

Shu Wei Sun, Yu Jen Chen, Kun Hsien Chou, Woei Chyn Chu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Keyhole diffusion tensor imaging (keyhole DTI) was previously proposed in cardiac imaging to reconstruct DTI maps from the reduced phase-encoding images. To evaluate the feasibility of keyhole DTI in brain imaging, keyhole and zero-padding DTI algorithms were employed on in vivo mouse brain. The reduced phase-encoding portion, also termed as the sharing rate, was varied from 50% to 90% of the full k-space. Our data showed that zero-padding DTI resulted in decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mean ADC) in white matter (WM) regions. Keyhole DTI showed a better edge preservation on mean ADC maps but not on FA maps as compared to the zero-padding DTI. When increasing the sharing rate in keyhole approach, an underestimation of FA and an over- or underestimation of mean ADC were measured in WM depending on the selected reference image. The inconsistency of keyhole DTI may add a challenge for the wide use of this modality. However, with a carefully selected directive diffusion-weighted image to serve as the reference image in the keyhole approach, this study demonstrated that one may obtain DTI indices of reduced-encoding images with high consistency to those derived with full k-space DTI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1413-1419
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number10
StatePublished - Dec 2010


  • Diffusion tensor imaging
  • DTI
  • Keyhole
  • Magnetic resonance keyhole imaging
  • Reduced encoding


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