Is surface doping or bulk doping more beneficial to the photocatalytic activity of TiO2

Su-Min Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Doping has been demonstrated to inhibit charge recombination and improve photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts. Conventional doping incorporates hetero-ions into the bulk lattice. In the presence of the defects, few charge carriers are trapped to suppress band-to-band recombination. Because most of trapped carriers annihilate with the counterparts, a low doping level is required, and the optimal doping concentration decreases with increasing particle size. Surface doping, on the other hand, only introduces dopants into the surface lattice. Surface-doped ions create an internal electric field to drive charge carriers to quickly drift to the surface. In addition, they trap the carriers and mediate charge transfer to the chemisorbed species. Compared to bulk doping, surface doping not only inhibits both bulk and surface recombination but also improves interfacial charge transfer, thus is more effective to improve photocatalytic activity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationACS Symposium Series
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780841230149
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014

Publication series

NameACS Symposium Series
ISSN (Print)0097-6156
ISSN (Electronic)1947-5918


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