Iron deficiency in Taiwanese patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

Hsiao Ping Sung, Chien Yi Hsu, Ying Hsiang Lee, Po Lin Lin, Chia Te Liao, Fa Po Chung, Shao Lun Ko, Chun Yao Huang, Kuan Chia Lin, Hung Yu Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is a common comorbidity among patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and is associated with poorer outcomes independent of anemia. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of ID in Taiwanese patients with HFrEF. Methods: We included HFrEF patients from two multicenter cohorts at different periods. The multivariate Cox regression analysis was applied to assess the risk of outcomes associated with ID, accounting for the varying risk of death. Results: Of the 3612 patients with HFrEF registered from 2013 to 2018, 665 patients (18.4%) had available baseline iron profile measurements. Of these, 290 patients (43.6%) were iron deficient; 20.2% had ID+/anemia+, 23.4% ID+/anemia-, 21.5% ID-/anemia+, and 34.9% ID-/anemia-. Regardless of anemia status, patients with coexisting ID had a higher risk than those without ID (all-cause mortality: 14.3 vs 9.5 per 100 patient-years, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.85; p = 0.091; cardiovascular mortality: 10.5 per 100 patient-years vs 6.1, adjusted HR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.03-2.30; p = 0.037]; cardiovascular mortality or first unplanned hospitalization for HF: 36.7 vs 19.7 per 100 patient-years, adjusted HR 1.57 [95% CI, 1.22-2.01; p < 0.001]). Among patients eligible for treatment in the IRONMAN trial design (43.9%), parenteral iron therapy was estimated to reduce heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular deaths by 13.7 per 100 patient-years. Conclusion: Iron profiles were tested in less than one-fifth of the Taiwanese HFrEF cohort. ID was present in 43.6% of tested patients and was independently associated with poor prognosis in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)725-731
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Chinese Medical Association
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023


  • Anemia
  • Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)
  • Hospitalization
  • Iron deficiency
  • Mortality
  • Taiwan


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