Invasiveness and surgical timing evaluation by clinical features of ground-glass opacity nodules in lung cancers

Pai Hsi Chen, Kuo Ming Chang, Wei Chi Tseng, Chien Hung Chen, Jui-I Chao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: The early stages of lung cancer with ground-glass opacity (GGO) pattern are detectable. However, it remains a challenge for physicians how best to treat GGO nodules as invasive tumors are occasionally found, even in pure GGO nodules. This study identified the invasiveness by the clinical features of the GGO nodules. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with resected GGO nodules from August 2015 to February 2019 was performed. A total of 92 patients were enrolled and gender, age, tumor location, operation times, tumor size, histopathologic and radiological findings were analyzed. Results: In this study, the sequential of GGO nodules invasiveness was significantly related to the tumor size and solid component. After regrouping the population into preinvasive and invasive groups, the invasiveness was significantly related to tumor size, solid component, tumor volume and maximal computed tomography (CT) value. Conclusions: The invasiveness is difficult to evaluate according to the CT features only when the GGO nodules are less than 2 cm and consolidation/tumor ratio (C/T ratio) are less than 0.25. Tumor size and solid component are significant factors for predicting invasiveness. Part-solid GGO nodules with a diameter greater than 1 cm require surgical consideration due to their high risk of invasiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2133-2141
Number of pages9
JournalThoracic Cancer
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2019


  • Ground-glass opacity
  • invasiveness
  • lung adenocarcinoma
  • surgical intervention


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