Intrinsically Stretchable Conductive Self-Healable Organogels for Strain, Pressure, Temperature, and Humidity Sensing

Amir Khan, Ravinder Reddy Kisannagar, Sadiq Mahmood, Wei Tsung Chuang, Monica Katiyar, Dipti Gupta*, Hong Cheu Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Intrinsically stretchable conductive self-healable organogels containing poly(lipoic acid), Al3+ ion, tannic acid, and reduced graphene oxide are produced in this report. These noncovalent networks interlocked through physical (hydrogen and coordination) bonds offered high stretchabilities and mechanical strengths as well as fast self-healing behaviors. The optimum organogel-based sensor showed outstanding pressure sensitivities (0.94 kPa-1 up to 10 and 1.07 kPa-1 for 10-50 kPa) and high strain responses (corresponding gauge factors of 1.1 and 0.4 for 0-50 and 50-100% stretching ratios). This organogel also revealed high stabilities at ambient atmosphere due to the presence of binary solvents of dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol. Additionally, this stretchable thermistor displayed remarkable two-stage sensitivities of −2.6 and −0.4%/°C ranging over 0-30 and 30-80 °C, respectively. Besides, the signal variations of water droplet addition and removal with different temperatures were recorded by the organogel sensor to elucidate the practical applicabilities as a temperature sensor. Moreover, the organogel was utilized to demonstrate humidity sensing, where individual sensitivities of 0.89 and 0.55 were obtained in the respective relative humidity ranges of 10-30 and 40-90%. In the meanwhile, the sensor device illustrated distinct humidity signals during respiration monitoring of nose and mouth breathing detection. Accordingly, these quad-functional sensor applications in strain, pressure, temperature, and humidity detection enable this gel to act as a promising material for future multifunctional flexible electronics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42954-42964
Number of pages11
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number36
StatePublished - 13 Sep 2023


  • humidity sensor
  • pressure sensor
  • self-healable gel
  • strain sensor
  • temperature sensor


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