Background: High grade gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumor, and despite their rarity, cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the treatment patterns of high grade glioma to examine survival patterns in patients who receive specific treatments between cohorts in Ohio and Taiwan. Method: Patients aged 18 years and older at age of diagnosis with World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or IV astrocytoma from 2007-2012 were selected from the Ohio Brain Tumor Study and the Taiwan Cancer Registry. The treatment information was derived from medical chart reviews in Ohio and National Health Insurance Research Data in Taiwan. Treatment examined included surgical procedure (brain biopsy and/or resection), radiotherapy (radiation and/or radiosurgery), and alkylating chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier and parametric survival models were used to examine the effect of treatment on survival, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. Results: 294 patients in Ohio and 1,097 patients in Taiwan met the inclusion criteria. 70.3% patients in Ohio and 51.4% in Taiwan received surgical resection, followed by concurrent chemoradiation. Patients who received this treatment had the highest survival rate, with a 1-year survival rate of 72.8% in Ohio and 73.4% in Taiwan. Patients who did not receive surgical resection, followed by concurrent chemoradiation had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio of 5.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.61-7.02] in Ohio and 1.49 [95% CI: 1.31-1.71] in Taiwan) after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. Conclusion: Surgical resection followed by concurrent chemoradiation was associated with higher survival rate of patients with high grade glioma in both Ohio and Taiwan; however, one-third of patients in Ohio and half in Taiwan did not receive this treatment.