Integrating LSM Trees with Multichip Flash Translation Layer for Write-Efficient KVSSDs

Sung Ming Wu, Kai Hsiang Lin, Li Pin Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Log-structured-merge (LSM) trees are a highly write-optimized data structure for lightweight, high-performance key-value (KV) stores. Furthermore, solid-state drives (SSDs) are a crucial component for I/O acceleration. Conventional LSM-over-SSD designs involve multiple software layers, including the LSM tree, host file system, and flash translation layer (FTL), which introduce cascading write amplifications. To manage the write amplifications from different layers, we propose KVSSDs, which are a close integration of LSM trees and the FTL. KVSSDs exploit the FTL mapping mechanism to implement copy-free compaction of LSM trees, and they enables direct data allocation in flash memory for efficient garbage collection. Our design also uses a fine-grained, dynamic striping policy to fully exploit the rich internal parallelism of multichip SSDs. The experimental results indicated that our LSM-SSD integrated design reduced the write amplification by 86% and improved the throughput by 383% compared with a conventional LSM-over-SSD design.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9066943
Pages (from-to)87-100
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Flash memory
  • key-value (KV) store
  • log-structured-merge (LSM) tree
  • solid-state drive (SSD)


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