Integrating CAD and 3D-printing techniques to construct an in vitro laser standard treatment platform for evaluating the effectiveness of sterilization by Er: YAG laser in peri-implant intra-bony defects

Shih Hao Chang, Hsiang I. Mei, Chun Li Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study established an in vitro model mimicking clinical peri-implant intra-bony defects. We investigated the effect of access limitation and the bactericidal effectiveness of erbium-doped yttrium, aluminum and garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation in shallow and deep peri-implant defects at different tooth positions. Reverse engineering, computer-aided design (CAD), and 3D-printing techniques were integrated to establish physical peri-implant intra-bony defect models at mandibular central incisor, first premolar, and first molar positions with shallow (2 mm depth) or deep (6 mm depth) defects and with 1.5 mm and 1.8 mm widths at the bottom and crestal portions of the alveolar process, respectively. Three-dimensional printed suites at the corresponding implant sites replaced experimental implant specimens for the investigation of bacterial adhesion in individuals. Dental implants with diameters of 3, 4 and 5 mm were utilized at the mandibular incisor, premolar, and molar positions, respectively. Bacterial adhesion of Gram (-) Escherichia coli on the exposed implant surfaces prior to sterilization was assessed. Sterilization with shallow and deep intra-bony defects was investigated by measuring the reduction of residual viable bacteria on implants after 60 s of irradiation with an Er:YAG laser. The adhesion rate of Gram (-) Escherichia coli on the investigated implant surfaces ranged from 1% to 3% (1.76 ± 1.25%, 2.19 ± 0.75% and 2.66 ± 1.26% for 3, 4, and 5 mm implants, respectively). With shallow peri-implant bony defects, the Er:YAG laser sterilization rates were 99.6 ± 0.5%, 99.3 ± 0.41% and 93.8 ± 7.65% at mandibular incisor, premolar, and molar positions, respectively. Similarly, sterilization rates in deep peri-implant defects were 99 ± 1.35%, 99.1 ± 0.98% and 97.14 ± 2.57%, respectively. A 3D-printed model with replaceable implant specimens mimicking human peri-implant intra-bony defects was established and tested in vitro. This investigation demonstrated effective sterilization using Er:YAG laser irradiation in both shallow and deep peri-implant intra-bony defects at different positions and diameters of dental implants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3431
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2020

Keywords

  • 3D printing model
  • Bactericide
  • Er:YAG laser
  • Intra-bony defect
  • Peri-implantitis

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