Integrated airline productivity performance evaluation with CO2 emissions and flight delays

Fei Huang, Dequn Zhou, Jin Li Hu, Qunwei Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


This paper evaluates the airline productivity change by applying a modified global Malmquist productivity index (GMPI) model, incorporating both CO2 emissions and flight delays. Statistical inference is also performed on the GMPI results using the bootstrapping method. Empirical research was conducted on 15 international airlines during 2011-2017. The obtained results showed that the productivity of all airlines had been fluctuating and experienced a slight increase over 2011–2017. Most of these 15 airlines made more progress in managing punctuality than CO2 emissions. High punctuality policy may not be the best choice for all airlines when considering financial constraints, while airlines in more liberalized aviation markets are more likely to improve productivity by reducing flight delays. Efficiency change and technological change were the major driving factors for the growth of airline productivity. European and US airlines benefitted more from superior technology, while most Asian and Oceanian airlines still benefitted from the advantage of efficiency. Based on the findings, specific management advice was given.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101770
JournalJournal of Air Transport Management
StatePublished - May 2020


  • Airline CO emissions
  • Airline performance
  • Flight delays
  • Global malmquist productivity index


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