The first integrated GaInP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) with the stacked transformers is demonstrated around 10 GHz. The stacked transformers formed by only two metal layers provide the inductive coupling in the cross feedback and separate biasing for base and collector to allow for the larger output swing in the LC tank and obtaining wide locking range. Under the supply voltage of 5 V and core power consumption of 20.5 mW, the locking range is 7.8% of the center operating frequency. The chip size of the entire ILFD including probing pads is 1.0 × 1.0 mm2.
- Heterojunction bipolar transistor
- Injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD)
- Stacked transformer