Inhibition of Trimethylamine N-Oxide Attenuates Neointimal Formation Through Reduction of Inflammasome and Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Carotid Artery Ligation

Chi Yu Chen, Hsin Bang Leu, Shen Chih Wang, Shih Hung Tsai, Ruey Hsing Chou, Ya Wen Lu, Yi Lin Tsai, Chin Sung Kuo, Po Hsun Huang*, Jaw Wen Chen, Shing Jong Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aims: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite generated from dietary choline, betaine, and l-carnitine, after their oxidization in the liver. TMAO has been identified as a novel independent risk factor for atherosclerosis through the induction of vascular inflammation. However, the effect of TMAO on neointimal formation in response to vascular injury remains unclear. Results: This study was conducted using a murine model of acutely disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis induced by partial carotid artery ligation. 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) was used to reduce TMAO concentrations. Wild-type mice were divided into four groups [regular diet, high-TMAO diet, high-choline diet, and high-choline diet+DMB] to investigate the effects of TMAO elevation and its inhibition by DMB. Mice fed high-TMAO and high-choline diets had significantly enhanced neointimal hyperplasia and advanced plaques, elevated arterial elastin fragmentation, increased macrophage infiltration and inflammatory cytokine secretion, and enhanced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress relative to the control group. Mice fed high-choline diets with DMB treatment exhibited attenuated flow-induced atherosclerosis, inflammasome expression, ER stress, and reactive oxygen species expression. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were used to investigate the mechanism of TMAO-induced injury. The HASMCs were treated with TMAO with or without an ER stress inhibitor to determine whether inhibition of ER stress modulates the TMAO-induced inflammatory response. Innovation: This study demonstrates that TMAO regulates vascular remodeling via ER stress. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that TMAO elevation promotes disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis and that DMB administration mitigates vascular remodeling, suggesting a rationale for a TMAO-targeted strategy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 38, 215-233.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-233
Number of pages19
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Volume38
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023

Keywords

  • neointimal formation
  • smooth muscle cell
  • TMAO
  • vascular inflammation

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