Increased risk of stroke in patients of concussion: A nationwide cohort study

Shih Wei Liu, Liang Chung Huang, Wu Fu Chung, Hsuan Kan Chang, Jau Ching Wu*, Li Fu Chen, Yu Chun Chen, Wen Cheng Huang, Henrich Cheng, Su Shun Lo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Long-term morbidities can develop after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Some studies have suggested that the risk of stroke is higher after TBI, but the association between concussion and stroke remains unclear. Using a national cohort, the authors analyzed the incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in patients with previous concussion. A representative cohort of approximately one million people was followed up for four years. Patients with new-onset concussion were identified (n = 13,652) as the concussion group. Subsequently, the incidence rates of later stroke events in the concussion group were compared to a sex-, age- and propensity score–matched comparison group (n = 13,652). The overall incidence rate of stroke in the concussion group was higher than that of the comparison group (9.63 versus 6.52 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001). Significantly higher stroke risk was observed in the concussion group than in the comparison group (crude hazard ratio 1.48, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.65, p < 0.001). In the concussion group, the cumulative incidence rates of both ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were higher than those of the comparison group (8.9% vs. 5.8% and 2.7% vs. 1.6%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Concussion is an independent risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Prevention and monitoring strategies of stroke are therefore suggested for patients who have experienced concussion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number230
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2017


  • Cohort
  • Concussion
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI)


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