Aims: The present study aims to investigate the utilization pattern of prenatal care and correlates for women with opioid use disorders (OUD) in Taiwan. Method: Using the data linkage between the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) register with national health insurance, national birth notification system, and birth registration system, we identified 1712 pregnancies with 20 or more gestational weeks from women enrolled in the MMT (heroin-exposed: receiving no methadone treatment during pregnancy, n = 1053 by 882 women; methadone-treated: receiving methadone for at least one day during pregnancy, n = 659 by 574 women) and their 1:10 matched pregnancies from 17,060 women without substance use disorder in the period of 2004-2013. The generalized linear mixed models with negative binomial and logit distributions were performed to evaluate the relationship between individual sociodemographic, health, and addiction treatment characteristics with the number of prenatal visits and receiving prenatal care in the first trimester (i.e., early entry). Findings: Eighteen percent of pregnancies by women with OUD received no prenatal services and 21% had started prenatal care in the first trimester as compared with 1% and 46% in pregnancies by women without substance use disorders. For pregnancies by women with OUD, methadone treatment was not linked associated with prenatal care visits (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.02; 95% = 0.92, 1.12). For methadone-treated pregnancies, treatment enrollment before pregnancy and spousal methadone treatment elevated prenatal visits by 8% and 18% (0.48 and 1.08 visits, respectively). Additionally, HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.83) and prior delivery (aOR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.19) significantly reduced the odds of early entry into prenatal care. Conclusion: Integrating addiction treatment programs with prenatal care is urgently needed to increase adequate prenatal care for pregnant women with OUD, especially the multiparous ones.
- Opioid use disorders
- Prenatal visits