Improving charge carrier balance by incorporating additives in the active layer

Hai-Ching Su*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have recently drawn much research interest because of their advantages related to single-layered device architecture, low-bias operation, and employing inert electrodes. Such features enable LECs to be inexpensive and efficient organic light-emitting devices. As mentioned in Chap. 1, the lack of charge injection and transporting layers hinders to achieve balanced carrier mobilities in single-layered LECs. In this chapter, techniques reported in literatures to achieve charge carrier balance in LECs by incorporating additives in the active layer are carefully reviewed. Furthermore, a new optical technique to probe charge carrier balance in LECs is introduced to confirm the effect attributed to the use of additives. This chapter summarizes that improving charge carrier balance of LECs would be essential to realize high device efficiency in spite of the existence of electrochemically doped layers.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLight-Emitting Electrochemical Cells
Subtitle of host publicationConcepts, Advances and Challenges
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9783319586137
ISBN (Print)9783319586120
StatePublished - 31 Jul 2017


  • Carrier injection
  • Carrier transport
  • Carrier trap
  • Charge carrier balance


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