Impaired cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy

Shao Lun Hsu, Yi Chu Liao, Chia Hung Wu, Feng Chi Chang, Yung Lin Chen, Kuan Lin Lai, Chih Ping Chung, Shih Pin Chen*, Yi Chung Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, caused by cysteine-altering variants in NOTCH3, is the most prevalent inherited cerebral small vessel disease. Impaired cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics has been proposed as one of the potential culprits of neurodegeneration and may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of cerebral small vessel disease. In the present study, we aimed to explore the cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy and to evaluate its association with clinical features, imaging biomarkers and disease severity of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy. Eighty-one participants carrying a cysteine-altering variant in NOTCH3, including 44 symptomatic cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy patients and 37 preclinical carriers, and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals were recruited. All participants underwent brain MRI studies and neuropsychological evaluations. Cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics was investigated by using the non-invasive diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space method. We found that cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy patients exhibited significantly lower values of diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space index comparing to preclinical carriers and healthy controls. For the 81 subjects carrying NOTCH3 variants, older age and presence of hypertension were independently associated with decreased diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space index. The degree of cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics was strongly related to the severity of cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers, with a positive correlation between diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space index and brain parenchymal fraction and negative correlations between diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space index and total volume of white matter hyperintensity, peak width of skeletonized mean diffusivity, lacune numbers and cerebral microbleed counts. In addition, diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space index was a significant risk factor associated with the development of clinical symptoms of stroke or cognitive dysfunction in individuals carrying NOTCH3 variants. In cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy patients, diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space index was significantly associated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Mediation analysis showed that compromised cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics was not only directly associated with cognitive dysfunction but also had an indirect effect on cognition by influencing brain atrophy, white matter disruption, lacunar lesions and cerebral microbleeds. In conclusion, cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics is impaired in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy and its disruption may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy. Diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space index may serve as a biomarker of disease severity for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberfcad349
JournalBrain Communications
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

Keywords

  • CADASIL
  • NOTCH3 gene
  • cerebral small vessel disease
  • glymphatic system
  • interstitial fluid dynamics

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