Immune and inflammatory gene signature in rat cerebrum in subarachnoid hemorrhage with microarray analysis

Chu I. Lee, An Kuo Chou, Ching Chih Lin, Chia Hua Chou, Joon Khim Loh, Ann Shung Lieu, Chih Jen Wang, Chi Ying F. Huang, Shen Long Howng*, Yi Ren Hong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been studied in terms of a contraction of the major cerebral arteries, but the effect of cerebrum tissue in SAH is not yet well understood. To gain insight into the biology of SAH-expressing cerebrum, we employed oligonucleotide microarrays to characterize the gene expression profiles of cerebrum tissue at the early stage of SAH. Functional gene expression in the cerebrum was analyzed 2 h following stage 1-hemorrhage in Sprague-Dawley rats. mRNA was investigated by performing microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses, and protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. In this study, 18 upregulated and 18 downregulated genes displayed at least a 1.5-fold change. Five genes were verified by real-time PCR, including three upregulated genes [prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), CD14 antigen, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1)] as well as two downregulated genes [KRAB-zinc finger protein-2 (KZF-2) and γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 (GABA B receptor)]. Notably, there were functional implications for the three upregulated genes involved in the inflammatory SAH process. However, the mechanisms leading to decreased KZF-2 and GABA B receptor expression in SAH have never been characterized. We conclude that oligonucleotide microarrays have the potential for use as a method to identify candidate genes associated with SAH and to provide novel investigational targets, including genes involved in the immune and inflammatory response. Furthermore, understanding the regulation of MMP9/TIMP1 during the early stages of SAH may elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms in SAH rats.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-125
Number of pages8
JournalMolecular Medicine Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Inflammation
  • Microarray
  • Rat
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1


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